Used Cars Ontology Language Reference

Used Cars Ontology Metadata (rdf:type owl:Ontology)

V 1.0:A, Release 2012-12-31

Latest version: http://purl.org/uco/ns#

Author: Hepp Research GmbH and Makolab S.A.

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#
rdfs:label Used Cars Ontology

rdfs:comment

UCO: The The Used Cars Ontology

A Web vocabulary for describing aspects of used cars for e-commerce.

Vocabulary: http://purl.org/uco/ns#
Namespace: http://purl.org/uco/ns#

The vocabulary is designed to be used in combination with
(1) GoodRelations, a standard vocabulary for the commercial aspects of offers for sale, rental, repair, or disposal; and
(2) the Vehicle Sales Ontology, a standard vocabulary for cars and other vehicles.

See http://purl.org/goodrelations/ and http://purl.org/vso/ns for more information.

dcterms:subject E-Commerce, E-Business, GoodRelations, Ontology, Automotive, Cars, Vehicles, Used Cars

dcterms:rights The Used Cars Ontology is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license; see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/. In a nutshell, you are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix/adapt the work (e.g. to import the ontology and create specializations of its elements), as long as you attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).

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Table of Contents

  1. Overview
  2. Examples
  3. Classes
  4. Datatype Properties
  5. Object Properties
  6. Individuals
  7. Contact Information
  8. License
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. References
  11. Change Log

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Overview

This Used Cars Ontology is an extension of GoodRelations and provides the additional vocabulary elements for describing used cars and their history, e.g. ownership record, damages, modifications, features, etc.

Representation of Vehicle Features

The general patterns of extending GoodRelations for vertical industries are described here.

The Used Cars Ontology slightly deviates from this standard pattern, because a global standardization of car features features is not possible without loosing granularity. Many features that look trivial at first sight are impossible to harmonize in a feasible and lossless way.

Thus, the Used Cars Ontology follows a radically different approach for Web Ontology Engineering in that it supports the so called Deferred Consensus Principle (Hepp (2012)): Instead of consolidating product features beyond those provided by the Vehicle Sales Ontology (VSO) in the new ontology, it provides a consolidated conceptual model for encoding proprietary feature information in a way that is most useful for the automated, heuristical consolidation at the client side. So instead of defining properties for all possible vehicle features, the ontology provides the class uco:PropertValue that can hold feature information in varying degrees of formality.

UML Class Diagrams

There is a UML class diagrams available that illustrates the conceptual structures of the Used Cars Ontology. Note that the following diagram is only an approximation of the real OWL DL model, since it cannot represent all details of the formal model.

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Examples

This section shows typical examples of using the ontology.

We assume the following prefix declarations for all examples:

# Prefix Declarations
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix schema: <http://schema.org/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> .
@prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> .
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> .
@prefix vso: <http://purl.org/vso/ns#> .
@prefix uco: <http://purl.org/uco/ns#> .
@prefix foo: <http://ontologies.makolab.com/uco/examples.rdf#> .

Examples of Describing a Used Car

Scenario: In the following, we describe an offer to sell a used 2002 Chevrolet Camaro

RDFa

You can use the tool at http://rdf-translator.appspot.com to generate an RDFa version of the example.

Turtle

Basic Car Description
# Part 1: Basic Car Description using http://purl.org/vso/ns
# Make and Model: 2002 Chevrolet Camaro
# VIN: 2G1FP22G522155049
# Drivetype: RWD
# Mileage: 42000 km
# Stock No: 155049
# Transmission: 6-Speed Manual
# Engine: 5.7L V8 OHV 16V
# Exterior Color: red
#
# 1.1 Basic Car Specification
foo:car_155049 a vso:Automobile, gr:Individual ; # it' a real car
    gr:hasManufacturer dbpedia:Chevrolet ;
    gr:hasMakeAndModel dbpedia:Chevrolet_Camaro ;
    vso:modelDate "2002-01-01"^^xsd:date ; # year-only data is not possible in xsd:date and also problematic
    vso:VIN "2G1FP22G522155049"^^xsd:string ;
    vso:bodyStyle <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Coup%C3%A9> ; # Coupé
    vso:color "red"@en ;
    vso:engineDisplacement [ a gr:QuantitativeValueFloat ;
                             gr:hasValueFloat "5.7"^^xsd:float ;
                             gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "LTR"^^xsd:string ] ;
    vso:engineName "5.7L V8 OHV 16V"@en ;
    vso:mileageFromOdometer [ a gr:QuantitativeValueFloat ;
                             gr:hasValueFloat "42000"^^xsd:float ;
                             gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "KMT"^^xsd:string ] ;
    gr:hasStockKeepingUnit "155049"^^xsd:string ;
    vso:gearsTotal [ a gr:QuantitativeValueInteger ;
                     gr:hasValueInteger "6"^^xsd:int ;
                     gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "C62"^^xsd:string ] ;
    vso:transmission dbpedia:Manual_transmission ;
    vso:fuelType dbpedia:Gasoline ;
    vso:rentalUsage "false"^^xsd:boolean ;
    vso:feature dbpedia:Cup_holder,
                dbpedia:Power_window,
                dbpedia:Air_conditioner,
                dbpedia:Anti-lock_braking_system ;  # Add more DBPedia / Wikipedia URIs for additional features
    foaf:depiction <http://www.flickr.com/photos/brickwall316/7081356845/> ; # URI of a photo
    foaf:page <http://www.agautosalesny.com/details.php?key=71> . # URI of the web page			
		
Offer
# 1.2 Offer using http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1
# Price: EUR 11990

# 1.2.1 Company / Vendor Data (needed only once for all offers)
foo:company a schema:AutomotiveBusiness ;
    schema:name "Miller Inc." ;
    foaf:page <http://www.miller.com/> ;
# add other properties from http://schema.org/AutomotiveBusiness here, if data is available
    gr:offers foo:offer1 .

# 1.2.2 Offer: Price, Payment, Conditions
foo:offer1 a gr:Offering ;
    gr:includes foo:car_155049 ;
    gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:Sell ;
    gr:hasPriceSpecification [ a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ;
                                gr:hasCurrency "EUR"^^xsd:string ;
                                gr:hasCurrencyValue "11990"^^xsd:float ] ;
    foaf:page <http://www.agautosalesny.com/details.php?key=71> . # URI of the web page			
		
Non-standard Car features using uco:Property
# Non-standard features using uco:PropertyValue
# 12V front power outlet
foo:car_155049 uco:feature 
                    [   a uco:PropertyValue ;   
                        uco:propertyName "12V front power outlet"@en ; 
                        uco:propertyValue "yes"@en ] .
# Rear leg room: 26.8 in.
foo:car_155049 uco:feature 
                    [   a uco:PropertyValue ;   
                        uco:propertyName "Rear leg room"@en ; 
                        uco:propertyValue "26.8" ;
                        uco:unitCode "INH"^^xsd:string ;
                        uco:unitText "inches"@en ] .  			
		
List Price Information
# List price: EUR 13,999
foo:car_155049 uco:listPrice [ a gr:PriceSpecification ;
                                gr:hasCurrency "EUR"^^xsd:string ;
                                gr:hasCurrencyValue "13999"^^xsd:float ] .			
		
Official Valuation (Blue Book (R) etc.)
# Valuation: Blue Book® Value EUR 12,500
foo:car_155049 uco:valuation [ a gr:PriceSpecification ;
                                gr:name "Kelly Blue Book® Value"@en ;
                                gr:hasCurrency "EUR"^^xsd:string ;
                                gr:hasCurrencyValue "12500"^^xsd:float ] .			
		
Location of the Car
# Current location: Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
foo:car_155049 uco:currentLocation [    a schema:PostalAddress ;
                                        schema:addressCountry "USA"@en ;
                                        schema:addressLocality "Mountain View"@en ;
                                        schema:addressRegion "CA"@en ;
                                        schema:postalCode "94043" ] .			
		
Certified Pre-Owned and Other Certificates
# Certification - Chevrolet Certified Pre-Owned inspected at a odometer mileage of 41750 km
foo:car_155049 uco:inspected [  a uco:Check ;
                                gr:name "Chevrolet Certified Pre-Owned Vehicle"@en ;
                                foaf:page <http://www.edmunds.com/chevrolet/certified-program.html> ;
                                uco:mileage [   a gr:QuantitativeValue ;
                                                gr:hasValue "41750"^^xsd:float ;
                                                gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "KMT"^^xsd:string ] ;
                                uco:carriedOutBy  uco:AuthorizedDealer ] . 
		
Smoking / Non-smoking
# Non-smoking: Nobody has ever smoked inside the car
foo:car_155049 uco:smoking false .
		
Pets
# The car has been used to carry dogs (regularly)
foo:car_155049 uco:pets dbpedia:Dog .			
		
Number of Owners
# Two owners: The current owner is the second owner
foo:car_155049 uco:numberOfOwners "2"^^xsd:integer .			
		

Detailed Ownership Records

Scenario: In the following, we show how the full ownership and usage record of a car can be modeled.

RDFa

You can use the tool at http://rdf-translator.appspot.com to generate an RDFa version of the example.

Turtle

Periods of Ownership
# Detailed ownership record
# The car has been owned by Frank Sample from 2002-02-15 (odometer: 0 km) through 2004-06-15 (odometer 13,000 km)
# and by Miller Inc from 2004-06-15 (odometer: 13,000 km) through today.

foo:person a schema:Person ;
# add other properties from http://schema.org/Person, if data is available
    schema:name "Frank Sample" .

foo:car_155049 uco:hasOwnershipInfo foo:record1, foo:record2 .

foo:record1 a uco:OwnershipInfo ;
    uco:owner foo:person ;
    uco:from "2002-02-15T00:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    uco:to "2004-06-15T00:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    uco:mileageInitial [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ;
                         gr:hasValueFloat "0"^^xsd:float ;
                         gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "KMT"^^xsd:string ] ;  
    uco:mileageEnd     [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ;
                         gr:hasValueFloat "13000"^^xsd:float ;
                         gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "KMT"^^xsd:string ] .

foo:record2 a uco:OwnershipInfo ;
# Note that uco:currentOwner is a specialization of uco:owner
# Also note that we already defined Miller Inc. above
    uco:currentOwner foo:company ;
    uco:from "2004-06-15T00:00:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    uco:mileageInitial     [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ;
                         gr:hasValueFloat "13000"^^xsd:float ;
                         gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "KMT"^^xsd:string ] .
		
Car Details per Period of Ownership

The ownership record could also state additional facts about the ownership period of Frank Sample.

The vehicle was used to carry dogs.

foo:record1 uco:pets dbpedia:Dog .
		

The vehicle was used for private purposes including commuting.

foo:record1 uco:usage uco:Private .
		

The vehicle was mainly parked it in a garage.

foo:record1 uco:usage uco:Garage .
		

The vehicle's main location was in Tuczon, Arizona.

foo:record1 uco:mainLocation [ a schema:PostalAddress ;
                               schema:addressCountry "USA"@en ;
                               schema:addressLocality "Tuczon"@en ;
                               schema:addressRegion "AZ"@en ] .
		

The license plate during that period was "L8 4 KRT".

foo:record1 uco:licensePlate "L8 4 KRT"^^xsd:string .
		

The vehicle was used by two different drivers.

foo:record1 uco:numberOfDrivers "2"^^xsd:integer .
		

Nobody smoked in the car during that period of time.

foo:record1 uco:smoking false .
		
Type of Usage per Period of Ownership

The Vehicle Sales Ontology (VSO) already provides a simple means for # indicating usage as a rental car for the entire lifespan of the car via the vso:rentalUsage property:

foo:car_155049 vso:rentalUsage true .

The Used Car Ontology allows making such statements at a more granular level:

# Usage as a rental car 
# Example 1: The car was used for rental, business, and private purposes, in total:
foo:car_155049 uco:usage uco:Rental, uco:Business, uco:Private .

# Example 2: The car was used for rental and business purposes by Miller Inc. (see above)
foo:record2 uco:usage uco:Rental, uco:Business .
		

Inspections (MOT, ...)

Scenario: Often, the date and expiry of mandatory of optional certifications and inspections is important information for advertising a used car.

RDFa

You can use the tool at http://rdf-translator.appspot.com to generate an RDFa version of the example.

Turtle

MOT Testing
# MOT Test valid until 2013-06-15
# Carried out on 2012-06-16 at 35,000 km
# See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vehicle_inspection for background information
# Note: This example is made-up, since a US vehicle will very rarely undergo a UK MOT test ;-)
foo:car_155049 uco:inspected [ a uco:Check ;
                               gr:name "MOT Test"@en ;
                               gr:description "MOT passed on 2012/06/14"@en ;
                               uco:mileage [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ;
                                             gr:hasValueFloat "35000"^^xsd:float ;
                                             gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "KMT"^^xsd:string ] ;
                               uco:validFrom "2012-06-16T00:00:00"^^xsd:dateTime ;
                               uco:validThrough "2013-06-15T23:59:59"^^xsd:dateTime ] .
		

Accident Information

Scenario:The car was damaged in an accident on 2012-03-01 in Palo Alto, CA at a mileage of 33,546 km. All damages have been repaired by an authorized service center with original parts only. There were no structural damage and none of the airbags were deployed in the accident. The owner was not at fault.

RDFa

You can use the tool at http://rdf-translator.appspot.com to generate an RDFa version of the example.

Turtle

Accident Details
                        
# Accident Information
foo:car_155049 uco:eventInformation foo:Accident1.

foo:Accident1 a uco:DamageOrAccident ;
    schema:location  [ a schema:PostalAddress ;
                       schema:addressCountry "USA"@en ;
                       schema:addressLocality "Palo Alto"@en ;
                       schema:addressRegion "CA"@en ] ;
    schema:startDate "2012-03-01"^^xsd:date ;
    schema:endDate "2012-03-01"^^xsd:date ;
    uco:mileage [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ;
                  gr:hasValueFloat "33546"^^xsd:float ;
                  gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "KMT"^^xsd:string ] ;
    uco:repaired true ;
    uco:carriedOutBy uco:AuthorizedDealer ;
    uco:originalPartsOnly true ;
    uco:totalLoss false ;
    uco:structuralDamage false ;
    uco:airbagDeployed false ;
    uco:notAtFaultAccident true .
		

Replacement of Core Parts (Engine, ...)

Scenario: Often, the replacement of core components of a car is important information for describing a used car.

RDFa

You can use the tool at http://rdf-translator.appspot.com to generate an RDFa version of the example.

Turtle

Engine Replacement
# Engine Replacement
# The engine has been replaced at a mileage of 16,000 km on Sept. 15, 2004.
foo:car_155049 uco:eventInformation foo:NewEngine .

foo:NewEngine a uco:ModificationOrMaintenance ;
    uco:partReplaced "Engine"@en ;
    schema:startDate "2004-09-15"^^xsd:date ;
    schema:endDate "2004-09-15"^^xsd:date ;
    uco:mileage [ a gr:QuantitativeValue ;
                  gr:hasValueFloat "16000"^^xsd:float ;
                  gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement "KMT"^^xsd:string ] .
		

SPARQL Queries

Scenario: Find a used car offer

Note: It is relatively easy to make the query compatible with different units of measurement for the quantitative properties, but this is not shown in here. You can try the query against the sample data provided at http://ontologies.makolab.com/uco/examples.rdf.

PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> 
PREFIX schema: <http://schema.org/> 
PREFIX xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> 
PREFIX pto: <http://www.productontology.org/id/> 
PREFIX gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> 
PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> 
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> 
PREFIX owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> 
PREFIX dbpedia: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> 
PREFIX vso: <http://purl.org/vso/ns#> 
PREFIX uco: <http://purl.org/uco/ns#> 
PREFIX foo: <http://ontologies.makolab.com/uco/examples.rdf#> 

SELECT ?dealername ?dealerwebpage ?offer ?deeplink ?price ?currency ?vin ?mileage
FROM <http://ontologies.makolab.com/uco/examples.rdf>
WHERE
{
?d a schema:AutomotiveBusiness .
OPTIONAL {?d gr:legalName ?dealername } 
OPTIONAL {?d gr:name ?dealername } 
OPTIONAL {?d schema:name ?dealername } 
OPTIONAL {?d foaf:page ?dealerwebpage }
?d gr:offers ?offer .
?offer gr:hasPriceSpecification ?p .
?p gr:hasCurrencyValue ?price .
?p gr:hasCurrency ?currency .

{
 { ?offer gr:includes ?car }
 UNION
 {
  ?offer gr:includesObject ?bundle .
  ?bundle gr:typeOfGood ?car .
 }
}

?car a vso:Automobile .
OPTIONAL { ?car vso:VIN ?vin }
?car vso:mileageFromOdometer ?m .
?m gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement ?unit .
?unit bif:contains "KMT" .
{
 { ?m gr:hasMaxValue ?mileage }
UNION
 { ?m gr:hasValue ?mileage }
}
OPTIONAL { ?offer foaf:page ?deeplink }
OPTIONAL { ?car foaf:page ?deeplink }
?car uco:numberOfOwners ?o .
?o gr:hasValue ?owners .
?car uco:smoking false .

FILTER (?mileage <= 50000) .
FILTER (?owners <= 2) .
} 
LIMIT 10
		

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1. Classes

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uco:Check (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#Check
rdfs:label Check

rdfs:comment

A mandatory or optional technical inspection, e.g. the MOT, a vendor-specific certification of used cars, etc.

Properties (rdfs:domain) : uco:carriedOutBy uco:mileage uco:validFrom uco:validThrough
This class is a valid range (rdfs:range) for: uco:inspected

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uco:DamageOrAccident (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#DamageOrAccident
rdfs:subClassOf http://schema.org/Event
rdfs:label Damage or Accident

rdfs:comment

A damage or accident is an event in which the vehicle is being damaged.

Properties (rdfs:domain) : uco:airbagDeployment uco:carriedOutBy uco:mileage uco:notAtFaultAccident uco:originalPartsOnly uco:repaired uco:structuralDamage uco:totalLoss
This class is a valid range (rdfs:range) for: uco:eventInformation

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uco:ModificationOrMaintenance (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#ModificationOrMaintenance
rdfs:subClassOf http://schema.org/Event
rdfs:label Modification or Maintenance

rdfs:comment

A modification or maintenance is an event in which a part of the vehicle is being replaced or removed, or a new part is being added.
Typical examples are the replacement of the engine or the installation of a trailor-hitch.

Properties (rdfs:domain) : uco:carriedOutBy uco:mileage uco:originalPartsOnly uco:partAdded uco:partRemoved uco:partReplaced
This class is a valid range (rdfs:range) for: uco:eventInformation

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uco:OwnershipInfo (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#OwnershipInfo
rdfs:label Ownership Info

rdfs:comment

An ownership information node is a structured value representing information about the period of ownership of a vehicle by a person or organisation.

Properties (rdfs:domain) : uco:contains uco:currentOwner uco:driver uco:from uco:licensePlate uco:mainLocation uco:mileageEnd uco:mileageInitial uco:numberOfDrivers uco:owner uco:parking uco:pets uco:smoking uco:to uco:usage
This class is a valid range (rdfs:range) for: uco:contains uco:hasOwnershipInfo

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uco:ParkingType (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#ParkingType
rdfs:subClassOf http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#QualitativeValue
rdfs:label Parking Type

rdfs:comment

A type of parking for a vehicle, e.g. in a garage, on the street (open-sky), or in a carport. You can use DBpedia URIs for additional types.

Predefined Individuals

This class is a valid range (rdfs:range) for: uco:parking

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uco:PropertyValue (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#PropertyValue
rdfs:label Property Value

rdfs:comment

A property-value is a structured value for representing a feature of a vehicle in a semi-formal way.

Properties (rdfs:domain) : uco:propertyID uco:propertyName uco:propertyValue uco:unitCode uco:unitText
This class is a valid range (rdfs:range) for: uco:feature

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uco:Species (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#Species
rdfs:subClassOf http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#QualitativeValue
rdfs:label Species

rdfs:comment

A species, typically a pet, for indicating the type of animals that were regularly transported in the vehicle.

If possible, use DBPedia URIs, e.g. http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dog.

This class is a valid range (rdfs:range) for: uco:pets

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uco:UsageType (rdf:type owl:Class)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#UsageType
rdfs:subClassOf http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#QualitativeValue
rdfs:label Usage Type

rdfs:comment

A type of usage of a vehicle, e.g. rental, taxi, driving school, commuting. It is best to either use one of the predefined individuals or DBpedia URIs whenever possible.

Predefined Individuals

This class is a valid range (rdfs:range) for: uco:usage

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2. Datatype Properties

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uco:airbagDeployment (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#airbagDeployment
rdfs:label airbag deployment (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates whether at least one of the airbags of the vehicle has been deployed in the respective accident (when attached to uco:DamageOrAccident) or ever (when directly applied to a vso:Vehicle).

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:DamageOrAccident http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean

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uco:countryOfOrigin (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#countryOfOrigin
rdfs:label country of origin (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The country or geo-political region in which the vehicle was initially sold officially, indicated as the two-character version of ISO 3166-1 (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) for regions or ISO 3166-2, which breaks down the countries from ISO 3166-1 into administrative subdivisions.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string

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uco:countryOfRegistration (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#countryOfRegistration
rdfs:label country of registration (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The country or geo-political region in which the vehicle is currently registered, indicated as the two-character version of ISO 3166-1 (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) for regions or ISO 3166-2, which breaks down the countries from ISO 3166-1 into administrative subdivisions.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string

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uco:from (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#from
rdfs:label from (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates the beginning of the period of ownership represented by this uco:OwnershipInfo node.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime

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uco:indicationOfOdometerRollback (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#indicationOfOdometerRollback
rdfs:label indication of odometer rollback (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates whether it is likely or known that the odometer of the vehicle does not properly reflect the total mileage of the vehicle, e.g. because the odometer has been replaced, reset, or tampered with

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean

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uco:licensePlate (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#licensePlate
rdfs:label license plate (0..*)

rdfs:comment

The license plate string(s) assigned to the vehicle during the period of ownership

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string

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uco:notAtFaultAccident (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#notAtFaultAccident
rdfs:label total loss (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates whether the accident leading to the damage was a not-at-fault accident from the perspective of the owner.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:DamageOrAccident
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean

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uco:numberOfDrivers (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#numberOfDrivers
rdfs:label number of drivers (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The number of people who were/are regularly driving the vehicle in the respective period of time (when attached to uco:OwnershipInfo) or in total (when directly applied to a vso:Vehicle)

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer

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uco:numberOfOwners (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#numberOfOwners
rdfs:label number of owners (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The total number of people or organizations who owned the vehicle, including the current owner.

Note that this value can be higher (but not lower) than the number of uco:OwnershipInfo nodes, since those records may be incomplete.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#integer

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uco:originalPartsOnly (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#originalPartsOnly
rdfs:label original parts only (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This indicates whether the parts used for repairing a damage, for a maintenance task, or a modification were all original.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:DamageOrAccident uco:ModificationOrMaintenance
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean

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uco:partAdded (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#partAdded
rdfs:label part added (0..1)

rdfs:comment

A textual description of the part or parts added in the modification (e.g. tuning) or maintenance task

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:ModificationOrMaintenance
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

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uco:partRemoved (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#partRemoved
rdfs:label part removed (0..1)

rdfs:comment

A textual description of the part or parts removed in the modification (e.g. tuning) or maintenance task

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:ModificationOrMaintenance
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

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uco:partReplaced (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#partReplaced
rdfs:label part replaced (0..1)

rdfs:comment

A textual description of the part or parts replaced in the modification (e.g. tuning) or maintenance (e.g. new engine) task

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:ModificationOrMaintenance
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

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uco:propertyID (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#propertyID
rdfs:label property ID (0..1)

rdfs:comment

A global identifier, e.g. a URI, a prefixed string, or any other identifier that can be used to refer to a standardized property type

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:PropertyValue
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

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uco:propertyName (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#propertyName
rdfs:label property name (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The name of the property

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:PropertyValue
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

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uco:propertyValue (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#propertyValue
rdfs:label property value (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The value of of the property

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:PropertyValue
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

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uco:repaired (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#repaired
rdfs:label repaired (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This indicates whether damages resulting from a certain uco:DamageOrAccident (when attached to this type) or all damages (when directly attached to a vso:Vehicle) have been properly repaired. Do not use this propery on a vso:Vehicle if it never had a damage.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:DamageOrAccident http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean

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uco:smoking (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#smoking
rdfs:label smoking (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates whether it has been smoked inside the car in the respective period of time (when attached to uco:OwnershipInfo) or ever (when directly applied to a vso:Vehicle).

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean

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uco:structuralDamage (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#structuralDamage
rdfs:label structural damage (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates whether the vehicle has suffered from structural damage in the respective accident (when attached to uco:DamageOrAccident) or ever (when directly applied to a vso:Vehicle).

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:DamageOrAccident http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean

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uco:to (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#to
rdfs:label to (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates the end of the period of ownership represented by this uco:OwnershipInfo node.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime

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uco:totalLoss (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#totalLoss
rdfs:label total loss (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates whether the vehicle is considered a total loss as the result of a damage in the respective accident (when attached to uco:DamageOrAccident) or in general (when directly applied to a vso:Vehicle).

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:DamageOrAccident http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#boolean

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uco:unitCode (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#unitCode
rdfs:label unit code (0..1)

rdfs:comment

A UN/CEFACT Common Code for indicating the unit of measurement of the value, if available

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:PropertyValue
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string

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uco:unitText (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#unitText
rdfs:label unit text (0..1)

rdfs:comment

A string or text indicating the unit of measurement. Useful if you cannot provide a standard unit code for uco:unitCode.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:PropertyValue
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Literal

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uco:validFrom (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#validFrom
rdfs:label valid from (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates the beginning of the validity of the inspection represented by the uco:Check node. This is typically the day of the inspection.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:Check
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime

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uco:validThrough (rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#validThrough
rdfs:label valid to (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property indicates the end of the validity of the inspection represented by the uco:Check node. This is typically the day of the inspection plus one (UK MOT) or two years (e.g. German TÜV).

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:Check
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime

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3. Object Properties

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uco:carriedOutBy (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#carriedOutBy
rdfs:label carried out by (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The business or type of business that carried out the check, repair, maintenance, or modification

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:Check uco:DamageOrAccident uco:ModificationOrMaintenance
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#BusinessEntity http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#BusinessEntityType http://schema.org/Organization http://schema.org/Person

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uco:contains (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#contains
rdfs:label contains (0..*)

rdfs:comment

A naive part-whole relation that allows providing more granular uco:OwnershipInfo data for a part of the duration of the ownership

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): uco:OwnershipInfo

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uco:currentLocation (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#currentLocation
rdfs:label currentLocation (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The current location of the vehicle, i.e. where the car could be tested. For indicating alternative locations to which the seller is willing to bring the car, use gr:availableAtOrFrom attached to the gr:Offering, since those are aspects of the offer, not of the vehicle.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://schema.org/PostalAddress

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uco:currentOwner (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#currentOwner
rdfs:subPropertyOf uco:owner
rdfs:label currentOwner (0..1)

rdfs:comment

This property points to the current owner of the vehicle.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://schema.org/Person

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uco:driver (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#driver
rdfs:label driver (0..*)

rdfs:comment

This property points to the driver or drivers that were regularly driving the vehicle during the respective period of time (when attached to uco:OwnershipInfo) or in total (when attached directly to a vso:Vehicle).

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://schema.org/Person

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uco:eventInformation (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#eventInformation
rdfs:label eventInformation (0..*)

rdfs:comment

This property points to events related to the vehicle, like accidents and damages or major modifications or maintenance.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): uco:DamageOrAccident uco:ModificationOrMaintenance http://schema.org/Event

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uco:feature (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#feature
rdfs:label feature (0..*)

rdfs:comment

This property points to vehicle features in a semi-structured property-value form.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): uco:PropertyValue

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uco:hasOwnershipInfo (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#hasOwnershipInfo
rdfs:label hasOwnershipInfo (0..*)

rdfs:comment

This property points to information about the current and previous owners of the vehicle.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): uco:OwnershipInfo

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uco:inspected (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#inspected
rdfs:label inspected (0..*)

rdfs:comment

This property points to inspections and certifications that the vehicle has undergone.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): uco:Check

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uco:listPrice (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#listPrice
rdfs:label listPrice (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The original list price of the new car at the time of production

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#PriceSpecification

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uco:mainLocation (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#mainLocation
rdfs:label main location (0..*)

rdfs:comment

The main location(s) of the vehicle during the period of ownership

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://schema.org/PostalAddress

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uco:mileage (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#mileage
rdfs:label mileage (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The mileage of the vehicle at the event, e.g. at the accident, maintenance, check, or modification.

Typical unit code(s): KMT for kilometers, SMI for statute miles

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:Check uco:DamageOrAccident uco:ModificationOrMaintenance
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#QuantitativeValue

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uco:mileageEnd (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#mileageEnd
rdfs:label mileage end (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The mileage of the vehicle at the end of the period of ownership.

Typical unit code(s): KMT for kilometers, SMI for statute miles

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#QuantitativeValue

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uco:mileageInitial (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#mileageInitial
rdfs:label mileage initial (0..1)

rdfs:comment

The mileage of the vehicle at the beginning of the period of ownership.

Typical unit code(s): KMT for kilometers, SMI for statute miles

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#QuantitativeValue

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uco:owner (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#owner
rdfs:label owner (0..*)

rdfs:comment

This property points to the owner of the vehicle for the respective period of time, as indicated by the uco:OwnershipInfo node.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://schema.org/Person

Subproperties

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uco:parking (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#parking
rdfs:label parking (0..*)

rdfs:comment

The main type(s) of parking that have been used for the vehicle during the period of ownership (if attached to uco:OwnershipInfo) or in general (if attached to the vso:Vehicle directly)

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): uco:ParkingType

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uco:pets (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#pets
rdfs:label pets (0..*)

rdfs:comment

The type(s) of animals that have been transported in the vehicle during the period of ownership (if attached to uco:OwnershipInfo) or in general (if attached to the vso:Vehicle directly).

If possible, use DBPedia URIs, e.g. http://dbpedia.org/resource/Dog.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): uco:Species

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uco:usage (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#usage
rdfs:label usage (0..*)

rdfs:comment

The type(s) of usage during the period of ownership (if attached to uco:OwnershipInfo) or in general (if attached to the vso:Vehicle directly)

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): uco:OwnershipInfo
Allowed values (rdfs:range): uco:UsageType

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uco:valuation (rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#valuation
rdfs:label valuation (0..*)

rdfs:comment

The market price assessment gained by the respective valuation. Use gr:name to indicate the name of the valuation service.

Compatible with (rdfs:domain): http://purl.org/vso/ns#Vehicle
Allowed values (rdfs:range): http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#PriceSpecification

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4. Individuals

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uco:AuthorizedDealer (rdf:type http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#BusinessEntityType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#AuthorizedDealer
rdfs:label Authorized Dealer (gr:BusinessEntityType)

rdfs:comment

An authorized dealer of the manufacturer of the respective vehicle

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uco:Business (rdf:type uco:UsageType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#Business
rdfs:label Business (uco:UsageType)

rdfs:comment

The usage of a vehicle for general business purposes, i.e. excluding usages like as a taxi, rental car, or driving instructions.

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uco:Carport (rdf:type uco:ParkingType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#Carport
rdfs:label Carport (uco:ParkingType)

rdfs:comment

The parking of a vehicle under a protective roof, e.g. in a carport

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uco:CarSharing (rdf:type uco:UsageType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#CarSharing
rdfs:label Car Sharing (uco:UsageType)

rdfs:comment

The usage of a vehicle for car sharing networks

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uco:DrivingSchool (rdf:type uco:UsageType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#DrivingSchool
rdfs:label Driving School (uco:UsageType)

rdfs:comment

The usage of a vehicle for commercial driver's education

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uco:Garage (rdf:type uco:ParkingType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#Garage
rdfs:label Garage (uco:ParkingType)

rdfs:comment

The parking of a vehicle in a closed garage

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uco:IndependentDealer (rdf:type http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#BusinessEntityType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#IndependentDealer
rdfs:label Independent Dealer (gr:BusinessEntityType)

rdfs:comment

An independent dealer

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uco:MoneyBack (rdf:type http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#WarrantyScope)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#MoneyBack
rdfs:label Money-back Guarantee (gr:WarrantyScope)

rdfs:comment

The promise to take back the vehicle without any specific reason for a full refund within a certain amount of time

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uco:Private (rdf:type uco:UsageType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#Private
rdfs:label Private (uco:UsageType)

rdfs:comment

The usage of a vehicle soleley for private purposes

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uco:Rental (rdf:type uco:UsageType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#Rental
rdfs:label Rental (uco:UsageType)

rdfs:comment

The usage of a vehicle as a rental car

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uco:Street (rdf:type uco:ParkingType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#Street
rdfs:label Street (uco:ParkingType)

rdfs:comment

The parking of a vehicle on a public or private street

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uco:Taxi (rdf:type uco:UsageType)

URI http://purl.org/uco/ns#Taxi
rdfs:label Taxi (uco:UsageType)

rdfs:comment

The usage of a vehicle as a taxi

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5. Contact Information

Dr. Mirek Sopek

Makolab S.A.

Demokratyczna 46
Łódź 93-430
Poland

Phone: +48 42 6837461
eMail: info@makolab.pl
Web: http://makolab.pl/

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp

Hepp Research GmbH

Kuppelnaustrasse 5
D-88212 Ravensburg
Germany

Phone: +49 751 2708 5256-0
eMail: contact@heppresearch.com
Web: http://www.heppresearch.com/

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6. License

The Used Cars Ontology is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix/adapt the work (e.g. to import the ontology and create specializations of its elements), as long as you attribute the work and link back to http://purl.org/uco/ns#.

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7. Acknowledgements

This documentation has been generated automatically from the most recent ontology specification in OWL using a Python script written by Alex Stolz and Martin Hepp. Our script uses the RDFlib library for parsing and handling RDF and the Jinja template engine for generating the HTML document.

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References

Hepp, Martin: GoodRelations: An Ontology for Describing Products and Services Offers on the Web, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW2008), Acitrezza, Italy, September 29 - October 3, 2008, Springer LNCS, Vol 5268, pp. 332-347.

Hepp, Martin: From Ontologies to Web Ontologies: Lessons learned from Conceptual Modeling for the WWW, keynote talk at EKAW 2012, video recording available from http://vimeo.com/51152934.

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Change Log

2012-12-31: Version 1.0:A release

2012-10-27: First official release

2012-10-17: Initial version